Mizikaci, Fatma. "Isomorphic and Diverse Features of Turkish Private Higher Education" PROPHE Working Paper No.18.
This study examines isomorphic and diversifying changes in Turkish private higher education institutions. Within and across the institutions isomorphic changes are common while diverse patterns appear among institutions with semi-elite characteristics. Within the limits of the national centralized system the semi-elite universities emerged as distinctive organizations and a few have grown into leading institutions competing with the top performing public universities. They have become the innovators in running different academic programs, curricula and administrative structures. But the largest group of private (“foundation”) universities bears the demand absorbing role showing isomorphic characteristics. Three critical elements of isomorphic change--coercive, mimetic and normative--are observed in these institutions. With the exception of the small number of distinctive organizations showing semi-elite characteristics, Turkey’s private (“foundation”) universities remain small and similar to one another.