The Program for Research on Private Higher Education
Dedicated to Building Knowledge about Private Higher Education around the World

National Laws

PROPHE posts laws or summaries of laws about private higher education. Sometimes, as in Tunisia, there is a specific law on private higher education, along with related regulations or decrees. Sometimes, as in China, private higher education is included under a general law on private education. In many countries legal provisions are undeveloped or scattered (see PROPHE Working Paper No.1) and sometimes broader laws on higher education or on business or on nonprofit organizations are pertinent. 

For a listing of detailed information of country cases contributors, please see here.

General Disclaimer:

The legal information and translations of the laws contained on PROPHE website is provided free-of-charge. It is intended for research purposes and related policy purposes. Information contained on this website should not be used as a legal reference in practical applications. Translations of these laws should be read side by side with the original text whenever possible. PROPHE makes no warranty, expressed or implied, about the accuracy of information contained on this website. Use of the information contained herein and any mistakes contained within is at the sole risk of the user.

PROPHE welcomes inquiries about potential contributions about laws from other countries.


Private Higher Education Law


Argentina: Legal Framework of Private Higher Education
Higher Education Act of 1995 (full text, in Spanish)


Effort towards a Private Higher Education Law


Legal Framework of Private Higher Education
Brazilian National Education Law (full text, in Portuguese)


Summary of Bulgarian Higher Education Act
Bulgarian Higher Education Act


Law on the Promotion of Non-government Education in China
Click here for the original Chinese text of this law.
Click here for the English translation.


Legal framework for private higher education
Education Act of 1990 (full text, in Spanish)

Czech Republic

Higher Education Act of the Czech Republic
Higher Education Act of the Czech Republic (with amendments marked)
(Source: Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports


Provisions for Private Providers in Ethiopia's 2009 Higher Education Proclamation
The Legal Framework for Private Higher Education in Ethiopia


The Legal Framework for Georgian Private Higher Education


Indian Private Universities (Establishment and Regulation) Bill


Private Higher Educational Institutions Act 1996 (amended 2006)


Legal Framework for Peruvian Private Higher Education  
Peruvian Higher Education Law (full text, in Spanish)  
Peru Decree 882 (full text, in Spanish)


The Legal Framework for Portuguese Private Higher Education


The Legal Framework for Russian Non-State Higher Education


Summary of Thai Private University Act B.E. 2546 (2003)
Thai Private University Act B.E. 2546 (2003)


Tunisian Private Higher Education Law


Overview and Legal Basis of Turkish Private Higher Education
Turkish Higher Education Law
Code of Foundation Higher Education ( 
English / Turkish)